There is an increasing need for steam at specific temperatures, and pressures exists in many modern plants. They have made improvements to increase operational thermal efficiency and heat rates but the precise, coordinated control of the temperature, pressure and quality of this steam. However, much of the steam production in power and process plants today is not at the required conditions for each application. Which means conditioning will be required. Therefore, desuperheaters are a necessity.
Superheated steam has important advantages in certain applications, such as when used in power stations to drive turbines. Superheat is almost always an aspect of steam generation. Without steam generation, the steam travels from the boiler to the point of use cools and condenses. Superheating can prevent that process, but it requires a small increase in energy. As a result, at the point of utilization, they must remove it (desuperheated) for predictable condensation as the steam gives up its heat.
The primary function of a desuperheater is to lower the temperature of superheated steam or other vapors. They accomplish this temperature reduction. As a result of the process vapor being in contact with another liquid like water. It then evaporates the injected water.
Desuperheaters play a crucial role in power generation, where superheated steam utilization as an energy source.
Desuperheaters reduce and condition the temperature of superheated steam in power plants. Which is often a usable energy source for mechanical power generation in steam turbines. In plants that generate steam for both power generation and process applications, the generated steam has to divert directly to the process side.
Desuperheater deployment is to reduce the pressure of superheated steam that supplies around a turbine or another power engine. They call this turbine bypass desuperheating. The steam reduction is still strongly superheated, and it is unsuitable for use. In the steam turbine backpressure system to which it feeds the steam, the basic requirement is to maintain the pressure and the temperature of the backpressure steam at a constant level.
Desuperheaters control the temperature of the turbine exhaust steam. Usually, at low turbine loads, the steam temperature gets too high and it will require desuperheating to assure proper operation of the downstream installed process equipment.
There is a newer technology to traditional desuperheaters. It utilizes a low-pressure water injection spray nozzle that we carefully direct upstream. The flow of the steam causes that cone of water to reverse direction and pass downstream through the mixing module. The steam and water are then effectively a mixture, reducing the superheat to the right value required for your mixture.
This new option has six fixed mixing elements. So, once the superheated steam goes into the Equalizer module and is combined with the injected cooling product. It is then divided and mixed by the elements in each of the six holes. Multiple impingement mixing zones develop at the exit, completing the three-stage contacting process. The Komax Equalizer is perfect for power LNG plants as an effective power generating source.